Speech and Language Development
Articulation/Speech Sounds
There are countless sound development charts available, each stating similar, but different ages at which sounds are supposed to be mastered. I follow the Colorado Department of Education’s developmental guidelines as outlined below.

Age which sound
should be mastered



/n, m, p, b, h, w,


/t, d, k, g, f,




voiced “th”




/v, pl, bl, kl, gl, fl/


voiceless “th,” “ch,” “sh”


“-ng,” “s-blends,” /s, z/





Like sound development charts, countless language development charts exist. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association uses these guidelines about general skills your student should be doing.

By the end of...




Follow 1–2 simple directions in a row.

Listen to and understand stories.

Follow a simple conversation.

Speak clearly enough so that most people understand what he/she says.

Answer simple yes/no questions.

Answer questions like, "What did you have for lunch today?"

Retell a story or talk about something he/she did.

Take turns talking and keep a conversation going.

Show interest in and start conversations.



Remember what they hear.

Follow two- to three-step directions in a row.

Speak clearly so that anyone can understand him/her.

Answer harder yes/no questions.

Tell and retell stories that make sense.

Share his/her ideas using complete sentences.

Use most parts of speech, or grammar, correctly.

Ask and answer who, what, when, where, and why questions.

Stay on topic and take turns in conversation.

Give directions.

Start conversations.



Follow 3–4 directions in a row.

Understand direction words, like here, there, over, next to, before, or later.

Answers questions about a second grade-level story.

Speak clearly.

Answer harder yes/no questions.

Ask and answer who, what, when, where, and why questions.

Use more complex sentences.

Explain words and ideas.

Give directions with 3–4 steps.

Use words to inform, persuade, and entertain.

Stay on topic, take turns, and keep eye contact during conversations.

Start and end conversations.



Pay attention in groups.

Understand grade-level information.

Speak clearly. Know when to talk with a soft or loud voice.

Ask and answer questions.

Be a part of conversations and group discussions.

Use words related to school subjects. For example, math, science, or history words.

Stay on topic, use eye contact, and take turns in conversation.

Summarize a story.

Explain what he/she learned in school.



Listen to and understand information.

Form opinions based on what she hears.

Listen for specific reasons, such as to learn, enjoy, or convince.

Use words correctly in conversation.

Use language for many reasons, like asking questions, arguing, and joking.

Understand some figurative language. This is language that uses words in new or different ways. For example, "This classroom is a zoo!"

Take part in group discussions.

Give correct directions to others.

Summarize ideas in his/her own words.

Organize information so it is clear.

Give clear speeches.



Listen and draw conclusions in different classes

Make planned speeches. He/She should know the audience and include information for that group.

Deliver a speech using appropriate eye contact and use gestures and a loud voice.

Take part in class discussions.

Summarize main points.

Report about information from group activities.

What do I do if I have concerns?
Please discuss your concerns with your student’s classroom teacher. The classroom teacher may be able to address your concerns. If needed, they will discuss these concerns with the Special Education team during interdepartmental meetings. We will formulate a plan to best serve your student, which may including consulting with the classroom teacher, screening your student, providing supportive service (i.e. RtI), or evaluating your student. You are a critical member of the educational team, so you will be informed and have a say in how we can best serve your student.